Everything had gone well. They raised an American Flag, deployed a solar wind collector, gathered forty-seven pounds of samples, and carried a laser reflector and the passive seismometer about twenty meters south of the LM for deployment. HISTORY, July 21: Apollo 11 astronauts depart lunar surface . It was the computer's job to maintain proper spacecraft orientation so that the high-gain antenna could maintain a lock on Earth. That bag they raised and lowered with a hook and lanyard, a humble rope that somehow managed to inherit the LEC's name. Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. The soil was very fine grained and had a powdery appearance and, once he stepped down, his boot sank perhaps a couple of inches, making a sharply defined print. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin together explored the landscape around the lunar module for 2 hours, 31 minutes, and 40 seconds and collected 22 kilograms of rocks and soil. Saturday Jul 21, 2018 at 2:01 AM. So he switched to manual control, pitched the LM forward, and began to fly it like a helicopter. Two minutes after pitchover and about two minutes prior to the landing, Armstrong took action. And NASA had never done that because they were concentrating so hard on getting the spacecraft ready to fly. And he'd been nervous about that. Apollo 11. Vorbereitungen zum Absinken. Neil Armstrong. Back in Houston, Flight Director Gene Kranz and other members of the support team in the Mission Control Room were watching telemetry from the LM. He stood on the pad for a moment or two, testing the soil with the tip of his boot before he made the epochal "small step". There were interrupt-driven, time-dependent tasks - e.g., turn the LM Descent Engine on at the correct time - as well as priority-ordered jobs that dealt with less time-critical things. The PSAC - the President's Scientific Advisory Committee which was chaired by Charlie Townes - asked NASA for a set of briefings that would detail how the first lunar landing mission would be conducted. Because the more experienced people at the lab were concentrating on getting the Command Module Computer software right, the two kids were given the responsibility for programming the LM powered-flight routines. What did Gene Cernan, the last Apollo astronaut to walk on the lunar surface, say about his experience on the first day, then the second day, of the mission? Apollo 15 Flight Journal: The Remainder of the Mission . For seven hours Houston left them alone with their thoughts. So what NASA did was assign two astronauts to each of three phases of the mission: launch to Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI), LOI to TEI (Trans Earth Insertion), and then the trip home. Just in case he had to end the EVA suddenly, Armstrong used a long-handed tool called the Contingency Sampler to scoop up a bit of rock and soil into a Teflon bag. Journal de la Surface Lunaire (en Français); Journal der Monderkundung (im Deutsch); Introductory Material. It is based on Figure 3-15 from the Apollo 11 Preliminary Science Report. A second or two later they were down and had the engine shut off. This was not stored in the memory allocated to individual jobs, so that it could be shared between programs. Pages Liked by This Page. The astronauts from Apollo 11 were Neil […] Movie. "So I worked out more of the detail and began to raise the idea up the chain of command. However, despite being very busy with things in the spacecraft for nearly two hours after they landed, from time to time they stole glances out the window and described the scene for the radio audience back on Earth. He wouldn't hear of not flying the ALSEP. (The first LM flew as part of the unmanned Apollo 5 test, and the other two flew on Apollos 9 and 10. I don't remember how much it weighed. And I said, 'I think Sam Phillips changed George's mind.' And when we left the room, George had indicated that he didn't think it was a good idea. They did not know about the crater yet - Armstrong wouldn't discuss it until well after the landing - but it was obvious that the landing was taking longer than planned. The Apollo 11 "landing ellipse" contains dozens of craters a hundred meters across or more, and the important point is that the LM had enough maneuverability and propellant so that Armstrong could avoid even the largest of them. But, whatever the reason for it, they said go ahead and target for the next landing site. I mean, the guy just lost it. In any case, if there were no VAC areas available, the program would branch to the Alarm/Abort routine and set Alarm 1201. He was Science Director and he just couldn't control himself. The long hours of training paid off, of course. Armstrong had killed almost all of their forward velocity and now, as they began to kick up dust with the engine exhaust, he asked Aldrin to confirm that they were still moving forward a little. Unless you've been holding out on me. However, toward the end of the EVA, the TV audience got a glimpse of Armstrong running back from a brief visit to a crater 60 meters east of the spacecraft. Aus dem Apollo Lunar Surface JournalApollo Lunar Surface Journal 140:45:08. The Apollo 11 landing site was chosen primarily for safety. The program alarms and the communications dropouts were annoying but in all other respects, the LM computer and the navigation system performed beautifully. They were bothered by spacecraft noises and by sunlight leaking around the edges of the window shades and in through the sextant. The Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed the Lunar Module (LM) Eagle approximately 60 meters west of Little West Crater on July 20, 1969. Apollo 11 Flight Plan These Flight Plan excerpts were scanned by Frank O'Brien. Each scheduled job has some erasable memory to use while it was executing. Scanning for a VAC area would be skipped if the scheduling request specified "NOVAC". After finding and reserving a VAC area, the core sets would be scanned to find an available core set. Forty seconds had passed since the sixty-second warning, but they were down. For example, we might have used an Erasable memory location with the mnemonic name TGO to contain the calculated time of engine burn for a maneuver. Armstrong, Aldrin, and Command Module Pilot Mike Collins had a flawless launch from Earth, a long, uneventful coast out to the Moon, and a nominal engine burn to put themselves into lunar orbit. After his lunar flight, Evans served as backup Command Module Pilot for the 1975 Apollo-Soyuz joint flight and then transferred to the Shuttle program prior to his retirement from NASA in 1977. Centuries ago, early lunar observers thought that the Moon had continents and oceans and that it was a possible abode of lif… His was the second of three trainers that went unstable and crashed and, as Cernan relates, the trainer he flew in preparation for Apollo 17 was the only surviving LLTV of an original fleet of four. To learn more, visit the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal's Apollo 11 page. Apollo 11 Journal . 167:01:55 Cernan: Boy, is that pretty inside. A close-up view of an astronaut's bootprint in the lunar soil, photographed with a 70 mm lunar surface camera during the Apollo 11 mission on the moon. As it turned out, parts of the computer memory were being overloaded with extraneous data from the rendezvous radar and, fortunately, not only had the computer been programmed so that it could continue to handle high priority tasks but, also, the person who knew the computer best - engineer Steven Bales - needed only a few seconds to diagnose the problem and recommend that the landing continue. We didn't know how nervous, but it didn't seem like a good idea to us and, by retargeting to the next site, you ended up with a post-sunrise splashdown in the Pacific. The Eagle Prepares to Land Ranger 9 was the last of the Ranger series of spacecraft launched in the 1960s to explore the moon and was designed to image and impact the moon's crater Alphonsus. Apollo 11 turns 45: A lunar landing anniversary retrospective ... including the outstanding Apollo Lunar Surface Journal (along with its companion site, the Apollo Flight Journal). Education. Essentially, it was a clothesline. The animation was produced by ALSJ contributor John Lloyd. It was a little more than that, and had been the subject of a great deal of testing before the software had been released. Mission Profile; Apollo 11 Animations; A Small Step in Learning to Walk. Apollo 11 was the first flight to send people to the moon.It was done by NASA, the American space group. Saturn V Rocket. Apollo Flight Journal, the excellent companion to the ALSJ by David Woods and the AFJ team;; Journal de la Surface Lunaire (en Français); Journal der Monderkundung (auf Deutsch); Apollo Image Gallery, quick access to high-res scans of mission photos, edited by Kipp Teague; As planned, he had fuel enough for five more minutes of flight. Similarly, if no core sets were available, the program would branch to Alarm/Abort and set Alarm 1202. And so I had this on my draft charts. In principle, if he didn't like the spot, he could pulse the pistol-grip handcontroller forward or back or to either side and, thereby tell the computer to move the target a small amount in the indicated direction. The excitement of the moment and the rush of collecting the bulk sample surely were contributing factors in Armstrong's case. Welcome to the Apollo Flight Journal, the companion to the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal. To give you an example in today's terms, right now I have Windows95 with Netscape Communicator active as I compose this message. If Windows was a smart as the Apollo LGC executive, after the reboot the CD might not be playing and WordPerfect might not be there, but I would come back to this message composition window, with the same text displayed, and Quicken would have my checking account open to the proper place. Like the Surface Journal, it is intended to be a resource for all those interested in the Apollo flights to the Moon, whether in a passing or scholarly capacity. On the Apollos 12 and 14, the ALSEP deployment typically took most of the first four-hour EVA and, as the first crew to do a lunar EVA, it seems unlikely that Armstrong and Aldrin would have been allowed to stay out that long. Inhaltsverzeichnis. It looked as though a crew that ventured a few hundred meters away from their LM would be able to run back in just a few minutes if the need arose. And when we briefed Chris Kraft, the discussion went back and forth and, just as I paused, Jerry said 'All that and a daylight landing, too!' Several times during the descent, the computer flashed alarms. Sam had not indicated one way or the other, but did say that we were just too far down the line to change the data pack. The Apollo 11 Lunar Module Eagle, in a landing configuration was photographed in lunar orbit from the Command and Service Module Columbia. Transkriptionen, Kommentare und Erläuterungen zu den Apollo-Mondlandungen. Last revised 28 July 2002. He served on the support crew for Apollo 7 and as the Apollo 11 LM Launch CapCom before his assignment to the Apollo 14 backup crew and, then, Apollo 17 as Command Module Pilot. Like the Surface Journal, it is intended to be a resource for all those interested in the Apollo flights to the Moon, whether in a passing or scholarly capacity. There were seven core sets and five VAC areas. The computer had been instructed to avoid certain spacecraft orientations which would force the antenna to look through the LM and, thereby, lose enough signal strength that the "lock" on Earth would be lost. But they were close now and it was just a matter of easing themselves down. This is a Wiggle Stereo animation of a pair of images (a11-45-6697) of the fine structure of a portion of the lunar surface taken by the Apollo 11 crew with the Apollo Lunar Surface Close-up Camera designed by Cornell physicist Thomas Gold and also flown on A12, 13, and 14. Movement wasn't particularly tiring but because of the dramatic upward-shift in his center of mass caused by the backpack, he had to lean forward to keep his balance and it took a few minutes before he could walk comfortably. Aldrin may have gotten two hours of fitful sleep. Close Encounters of the Third Kind. When we got to Apollo 11, there was no question. 24 July 1969. There were still five hours to go before Houston said "Good Night" and there was still plenty to do. This is a Wiggle Stereo animation of a pair of images (a11-45-6697) of the fine structure of a portion of the lunar surface taken by the Apollo 11 crew with the Apollo Lunar Surface Close-up Camera designed by Cornell physicist Thomas Gold and also flown on … We haven't seen anything like this! He was to do spacecraft stuff in orbit and I was to put together what we were going to do once we were on the surface. From the Apollo 17 Video Library. e Lunar Module Eagle (LM-5) is the spacecraft that served as the crewed lunar lander of Apollo 11, which was the first mission to land humans on the Moon. Generally, they walked without bounding and, compared with later crews, their movements seem fairly stiff and restricted. The complete Apollo 11 Flight Plan is available in PDF format. And everybody was just sort of staring at him. Author/Curator: Dr. David R. Williams, dave.williams@nasa.gov NSSDCA, Mail Code 690.1 NASA … 167:01:53 Schmitt: Yeah. However, once Aldrin had given him an initial target angle, Armstrong realized that, although the site selection team had picked a smooth patch of ground, the state of the guidance art at the time of Apollo 11 wasn't nearly as refined as it would be for the later missions, and fate and the computer were taking the LM into a field of boulders on the northeast shoulder of a crater the size of a football field. With only a short time at their disposal, Armstrong and Aldrin had only a few things they could get done before they had to have the hatch closed. So, when Tom and I left, we were sort of discouraged. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin together explored the landscape around the lunar module for 2 hours, 31 minutes, and 40 seconds and collected 22 kilograms of rocks and soil. Vorbereitung zum Ausstieg. For sixteen minutes they looked out the windows and timed the passage of landmarks below them (across a scale marked on Armstrong's window) to confirm the tracking data that Houston was getting. Ein kleiner Schritt beim Gehen lernen. It was named after bald eagle, which was featured prominently on the mission insignia. However, if he hit the engine bell or one of the landing struts on a large rock, there would be a real chance of sustaining structural damage. There was no doubt in Armstrong's mind about landing in the boulder field. That was us. The Apollo 11 landing site was chosen primarily for safety. Graduated from MIT the same year you graduated from CalTech (1966), and Don is a year or two older. Les lecteurs qui ont des commentaires, des suggestions ou qui voudraient participer à cet effort volontaire, devraient communiquer avec les Cantin à l'adresse liée ici. Indeed, during training, Armstrong had to eject from one of the LLTV's. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this picture with a 70mm lunar surface camera. Another copy of... Apollo Lunar Surface Journal. First, we've already seen the Apollo 8 site, admittedly from high orbit (60 miles altitude), and we came away with some confidence that it was acceptable. He wanted to land on the surface he could see in front of them, rather than on ground he couldn't see behind them. If, from a practical point of view, Apollo 11 was a demonstration flight, a point of departure for the more sophisticated missions that would follow, it was still the one for the history books. Because of the restrictions imposed by the pressurized suits, by the shifted center of mass, by the weak gravitational field, and especially by the clumsy, pressurized gloves, the work was generally harder to do than it would have been in a shirtsleeve environment. I and my good friend Don Eyles were two of the 'young experts' at the MIT Instrumentation Lab - Draper Lab - who worked on the software for the LEM guidance computer. Another copy of... Apollo Lunar Surface Journal. This patch was radioed up and the crew entered it manually. Site Selection; Preparing for the Descent; The Lunar First Landing; Preparing to Go Outside ; One Small Step; Deploying the Scientific Equipment; Closing Out the EVA. I thought you might be interested in some more detail about the 1201 and 1202 program alarms that occurred durning the Apollo 11 lunar landing. To do that, he would have to overfly the crater and land well to the west of it; and there was clearly no point - nor really much time - to give the computer enough of an update via the handcontroller. Apollo Lunar Surface Journal The Apollo Lunar Surface Journal is a record of the lunar surface operations conducted by the six pairs of astronauts who landed on the Moon from 1969 through 1972.i The Journal is intended as a resource for anyone wanting to know what happened during the missions and why. Nowhere on the Moon are craters of that size more than a few kilometers apart and, for this first landing, the NASA flight engineers were not yet ready to fine-tune the approach trajectory to much better than about eight kilometers east or west of the target point and about two kilometers north or south. Weight limitations were certainly one reason why Apollo 11 flew with only a few pieces of scientific gear. Coming back toward the camera for a second time, he tried a kangaroo hop but decided that it didn't give him as much fore/aft stability as he got with the loping gait. APOLLO JOURNAL DER MONDERKUNDUNGEN. Wiki info. Armstrong got none at all. One was the seismometer and one was the corner reflector. lunar dust from the Apollo 16 landing site! Second, if we target Apollo 10 for the next certified site west (certified landing sites were spaced about 12 degrees apart - about the distance the sunrise line moves in 24 hours - in case there was a launch delay and you didn't want to have to wait a whole month), the fact that Apollo 10 is going to spend an extra day in orbit means that, by the time you're ready to leave, the Sun will have risen on the third site. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the United States was engaged in the Cold War, a geopolitical rivalry with the Soviet Union. As a living document, it will continue to grow and evolve. The event itself was exciting enough. Find and read the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal's entry for Apollo 17, no. Interest. We had stuck something in our arguments to get his attention because, had we maintained the Apollo 8 target for Apollo 10, we would have had a pre-sunrise, quasi-nighttime splashdown. (LPD) was designed for fine tuning and what Armstrong needed was a big change. But that's why Apollo 11 didn't have ALSEP but did have some science experiments.". The only time that programs were executed out of erasable was when we had to "patch" the program after it had been released and the fixed memory configuration had been manufactured. This is a Wiggle Stereo animation of a pair of images (a11-45-6697) of the fine structure of a portion of the lunar surface taken by the Apollo 11 crew with the Apollo Lunar Surface Close-up Camera designed by Cornell physicist Thomas Gold and also flown on A12, 13, and 14. Apollo 11 Mission Overview - Lunar and Planetary Institute Apollo 11 Mission Summary - Kennedy Space Center Apollo 11 Information - National Air and Space Museum Apollo Lunar Surface Journal - Transcript of Apollo communications. The other crews would work in relative obscurity, stepping briefly into the spotlight but without leaving so lasting a public impression. Don was responsible for the LM P60's (Lunar Descent), while I was responsible for the LM P40's (which were) all other LM powered flight except for P12, which was the Lunar Ascent program; we didn't concentrate on getting up from the Moon until a little later. Starting from near the LM, he first ran toward the TV camera, rolling from foot to foot in a loping or, as Jack Schmitt calls it, a cross-country skiing stride. When a job was to be scheduled, a call would be made to the appropriate executive routine - sort of like a DOS call today. According to the flight plan, Armstrong and Aldrin were scheduled to take a five-hour rest break before getting ready to go outside. Ein kleiner Schritt. From the footpad, he had only a couple of inches to step down to the surface itself. Asking questions like that is the way a science advisory committee can really contribute to the process, and the PSAC forced NASA to think things through. Cold War. The Apollo Lunar Surface Journal is a record of the lunar surface operations conducted by the six pairs of astronauts who landed on the Moon from 1969 through 1972. For the first half hour or so, neither Armstrong nor Aldrin did more than a shuffling walk as they went about their work and it was planned, after this initial period of familiarization, for Aldrin to try to take advantage of the one-sixth gravity and try to run. The measured magnetic field has contributions both from the Moon's intrinsic magnetic field as well as from external sources, primarily the Earth and Sun. This memory was used for intermediate computational results, rather data. Apollo 11 Mission Overview - Lunar and Planetary Institute Apollo 11 Mission Summary - Kennedy Space Center Apollo Lunar Surface Journal - Transcript of Apollo 11 communications Apollo 11 Preliminary Science Report (PDF) Apollo 11 Press Kit (PDF) Return to Apollo page Return to Lunar home page . If I were to reboot now, all of those programs would be closed down. Erasable memory was used for variable data, counters, and the like. Armstrong Film. Collins would remain in a circular orbit 60 nautical miles above the Moon and, because of his higher altitude, it was he who was first to regain radio contact with Earth. Nonetheless, it was the smallest margin of all the Apollo landings. Traduction du Apollo Lunar Surface Journal de l'anglais au français,et d'autres langues, a commencé au début de 2010. The indicator for AS11-40-5898 between the +Z and -Y strut, the plaque, is wrong, most likely it's for AS11-40-5893 More complete captions and higher resolution version of most of the photos can be accessed through the Apollo 11 Digital Picture Library. At pitchover, Armstrong positioned himself so that the vertical scales were aligned; and Aldrin read a computer output to him that indicated just where he should look on the scale to find the computer's intended landing point. The trajectory looked good but the "1202" message - like a later "1201" - wasn't one that the crew recognized and there were a few tense seconds until Houston radioed "We're GO on that alarm." ... the lander to the surface of the moon during Apollo 11. Product/Service. A tilt of up to fifteen degrees would cause no particular problem with a launch. If you look at the Moon through a telescope, you can see that it is covered by impact craters of all sizes. Comparison of values of the specific radioactivities reported for lunar surface material from the Apollo 11 mission with analogous data for stone meteorites suggests that energetic particles from the solar flare of 12 April 1969 may have produced most of the cobalt-56 observed. If, as Cernan suggests, landing on the Moon was easier than landing on an aircraft carrier at night, one of the many advantages was the fact that the LM was equipped with what was - for the time - a sophisticated on-board computer that did much of the routine work of flying the spacecraft. Apollo 11 | Apollo 12 | Apollo 13 | Apollo 14 | Apollo 15 | Apollo 16 | Apollo 17 Resources. There was even one moment - a bit earlier in the EVA when Aldrin was lifting the scientific instruments down from its storage compartment - when Armstrong appeared to bob down on one knee, a difficult maneuver in the stiff spacesuit. Perhaps the most dramatic moment of Apollo 11's mission to the moon was when the Eagle began its final descent to the lunar surface and the ship's computer became overloaded. And that ended up being Tranquility Base. If a job required more temporary storage, the scheduling request asked for a VAC - vector accumulator - which had 44 erasable words. What were the two experiments that you'd like to have on the Moon if you never got another chance? Apollo 11 - flown film. There were samples to stow, gear to be jettisoned, and a long list of housekeeping tasks to be taken care of before they could have a scheduled rest period. - that the high-gain antenna could maintain a lock on Earth confidence.! Nonetheless, it was just a matter of easing themselves down job suited... Called me and said that George had changed his mind. 11 flew with a. Phillips changed George 's mind. the original computer from an Apollo surface! 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